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    Glossary


    Arch_dwgArch – A curved, symmetrical structure usually spanned over an opening.

    Architectural – Having the qualities of architecture, conforming to the basic principles of architecture.

    Arris – Sharp Edge formed at the meeting of two surfaces. Also a line on a stone from which all levelling is measured.

    Ashlar – Building stone that has been cut into rectangular or squared blocks with either smoothed or dressed faces.

    Baluster – A miniature column or pillar as part of a series supporting a coping or hand rail, making up a balustrade.

    Base---Tuscan_dwgBase – The lowest moulding of a structure.

    Bespoke – Custom made. Specially adapted or designed for a user or purpose.

    Capital – The head or top of a column or pilaster.

    Carving – Shape by cutting.

    Chamfer – To neatly bevel an exterior angle.

    Cill – Horizontal block which bears the upright parts of a frame.

    Cladding – The exterior skin of a building which does not support or carry any weight from the structure. Light-weight and protects from weather elements like a casing.

    Column – A vertical structure, typically circular in section consisting of three parts; a base, plinth or pedestal, a shaft and a capital.

    Conservation – Preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect.

    Contractor – a firm or person that is contracted to supply materials or a service.

    Coping – A flat or angled stone used to top a free standing wall from weather conditions.

    Course – A continuous, horizontal band of stone usually encircling a building. Different types include:
    Belt course – Flat stones creating a division in the wall plane.
    Blocking course – Plain course above a cornice forming a parapet.
    Dentil course – Part of cornice below the main section of cornice, made up of rectangular blocks positioned like teeth.
    String course – Projecting band from the wall surface.

    Corbel – A projecting stone supporting a structure above it.

    Cornice – Ornamental crowning feature of external walls or at the junction of wall and ceiling in internal walls.

    Face – Exposed portion of a stone or a flat edge.

    Finish – Surface treatment. Many available some are as follows:
    Chat sawn – Leaves a surface with uneven and irregular markings.
    Brushed – Surface textured using a coarse rotary-type wire brush.
    Bush hammered – Finished or texturized with a masonry tool which consists of a grid of pyramidal, or conical points on the end of a large metal slug.
    Droved – Type of finish which sees a face horizontally furrowed.
    Gang sawn – Granular finish achieved using a gang saw.
    Honed – Surface is left with a dull sheen but no reflections.
    Polished – Glossy mirrored effect with reflections.
    Pitch faced – A clearly defined outer edge with a convex rough/rock face.
    Rock face – Rough convex face, protruding outwards.
    Smoothed – Flat machine finish using a planer
    Split face – Concave and convex, both inward and outward curving.
    Thermal – Coarse finish achieved by a flame.


    Flagstone – Thins slabs of stone used for paving walks, driveways or patios etc.

    Flooring – Permanent cover for a floor.

    Forestair – External stair to first floor level.

    Furrowed – Marked with shallow depressions.

    Gauge – Grinding process.

    Grain – Easiest split direction in a stone.

    Granite – Granular igneous rock consisting of quartz, feldspar, mica and accessory minerals.

    Head – Horizontal block finishing the top of a frame.

    Hearth stone – Large stone or multiple stones used for the floor of a fireplace.

    Jamb – Straight sides of a frame.

    Keystone – Central stone in a voussoir ring or arch.

    Landscaping – Modifying the aesthetic appearance of an area, typically outside.

    Limestone – A hard sedimentary rock mainly consisting of calcium carbonate or dolomite.

    Lintel – Solid piece of material built over an opening to support the wall above.

    Masonry – Stonework.

    Mullion – Upright division of a window.

    Natural stone – Naturally occurring rocks, not artificial.

    Parapet – Part of an exterior wall which is entirely above the roof line.

    Paving – A surface made up of stones laid in a pattern.

    Pilaster – A rectangular column.

    Plinth/Pedestal – Bottom section of a column.

    Porphyry stone – Igneous rock in-set with large crystals.

    Project management – Planning, organising and controlling resources to achieve goals and meet specific criteria.

    Quarry – The location from which large quantities of natural stone are removed from the ground.

    Quoin – External corner of a wall. Chamfered-Quoins drawingTypically emphasised by being a different colour, projection or finish, or larger in size than the stones of which the wall is composed.

    Sandstone – A durable sedimentary stone with high tensile strength; composed of quartz and cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Comes in a wide range of colours and textures.

    Slab – Cut of a quarry block of stone.

    Voussoir – a semi-circle of separate stones compiled to form the outer edge of an arch.