Arch – A curved, symmetrical structure usually spanned over an opening.
Architectural – Having the qualities of architecture, conforming to the basic principles of architecture.
Arris – Sharp Edge formed at the meeting of two surfaces. Also a line on a stone from which all levelling is measured.
Ashlar – Building stone that has been cut into rectangular or squared blocks with either smoothed or dressed faces.
Baluster – A miniature column or pillar as part of a series supporting a coping or hand rail, making up a balustrade.
Base – The lowest moulding of a structure.
Bespoke – Custom made. Specially adapted or designed for a user or purpose.
Capital – The head or top of a column or pilaster.
Carving – Shape by cutting.
Chamfer – To neatly bevel an exterior angle.
Cill – Horizontal block which bears the upright parts of a frame.
Cladding – The exterior skin of a building which does not support or carry any weight from the structure. Light-weight and protects from weather elements like a casing.
Column – A vertical structure, typically circular in section consisting of three parts; a base, plinth or pedestal, a shaft and a capital.
Conservation – Preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect.
Contractor – a firm or person that is contracted to supply materials or a service.
Coping – A flat or angled stone used to top a free standing wall from weather conditions.
Course – A continuous, horizontal band of stone usually encircling a building. Different types include:
Belt course – Flat stones creating a division in the wall plane.
Blocking course – Plain course above a cornice forming a parapet.
Dentil course – Part of cornice below the main section of cornice, made up of rectangular blocks positioned like teeth.
String course – Projecting band from the wall surface.
Corbel – A projecting stone supporting a structure above it.
Cornice – Ornamental crowning feature of external walls or at the junction of wall and ceiling in internal walls.
Face – Exposed portion of a stone or a flat edge.
Finish – Surface treatment. Many available some are as follows:
Chat sawn – Leaves a surface with uneven and irregular markings.
Brushed – Surface textured using a coarse rotary-type wire brush.
Bush hammered – Finished or texturized with a masonry tool which consists of a grid of pyramidal, or conical points on the end of a large metal slug.
Droved – Type of finish which sees a face horizontally furrowed.
Gang sawn – Granular finish achieved using a gang saw.
Honed – Surface is left with a dull sheen but no reflections.
Polished – Glossy mirrored effect with reflections.
Pitch faced – A clearly defined outer edge with a convex rough/rock face.
Rock face – Rough convex face, protruding outwards.
Smoothed – Flat machine finish using a planer
Split face – Concave and convex, both inward and outward curving.
Thermal – Coarse finish achieved by a flame.
Flagstone – Thins slabs of stone used for paving walks, driveways or patios etc.
Flooring – Permanent cover for a floor.
Forestair – External stair to first floor level.
Furrowed – Marked with shallow depressions.
Gauge – Grinding process.
Grain – Easiest split direction in a stone.
Granite – Granular igneous rock consisting of quartz, feldspar, mica and accessory minerals.
Head – Horizontal block finishing the top of a frame.
Hearth stone – Large stone or multiple stones used for the floor of a fireplace.
Jamb – Straight sides of a frame.
Keystone – Central stone in a voussoir ring or arch.
Landscaping – Modifying the aesthetic appearance of an area, typically outside.
Limestone – A hard sedimentary rock mainly consisting of calcium carbonate or dolomite.
Lintel – Solid piece of material built over an opening to support the wall above.
Masonry – Stonework.
Mullion – Upright division of a window.
Natural stone – Naturally occurring rocks, not artificial.
Parapet – Part of an exterior wall which is entirely above the roof line.
Paving – A surface made up of stones laid in a pattern.
Pilaster – A rectangular column.
Plinth/Pedestal – Bottom section of a column.
Porphyry stone – Igneous rock in-set with large crystals.
Project management – Planning, organising and controlling resources to achieve goals and meet specific criteria.
Quarry – The location from which large quantities of natural stone are removed from the ground.
Quoin – External corner of a wall. Typically emphasised by being a different colour, projection or finish, or larger in size than the stones of which the wall is composed.
Sandstone – A durable sedimentary stone with high tensile strength; composed of quartz and cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Comes in a wide range of colours and textures.
Slab – Cut of a quarry block of stone.
Voussoir – a semi-circle of separate stones compiled to form the outer edge of an arch.